Title 24, Chapter 4, Section 48
(a) For purposes of this Code section, "unavailability of a witness"
includes situations in which the authenticating witness:
(1) Is exempted by ruling of the court on the ground of privilege
from testifying concerning the subject matter of the
(2) Persists in refusing to testify concerning the subject matter
of the authentication despite an order of the court to do so;
(3) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the
(4) Is unable to be present or to testify at the hearing because
of death or then existing physical or mental illness or infirmity;
(5) Is absent from the hearing and the proponent of the
authentication has been unable to procure the attendance of the
authenticating witness by process or other reasonable means.
An authenticating witness is not unavailable as a witness if his or
her exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or
absence is due to the procurement or wrongdoing of the proponent of
an authentication for the purpose of preventing the witness from
attending or testifying.
(b) Subject to any other valid objection, photographs, motion
pictures, videotapes, and audio recordings shall be admissible in
evidence when necessitated by the unavailability of a witness who
can provide personal authentication and when the court determines,
based on competent evidence presented to the court, that such items
tend to show reliably the fact or facts for which the items are
(c) Subject to any other valid objection, photographs, motion
pictures, videotapes, and audio recordings produced at a time when
the device producing the items was not being operated by an
individual person or was not under the personal control or in the
presence of an individual operator shall be admissible in evidence
when the court determines, based on competent evidence presented to
the court, that such items tend to show reliably the fact or facts
for which the items are offered, provided that prior to the
admission of such evidence the date and time of such photograph,
motion picture, or videotape recording shall be contained on such
evidence and such date and time shall be shown to have been made
contemporaneously with the events depicted in the photograph,
videotape, or motion picture.
(d) This Code section shall not be the exclusive method of
introduction into evidence of photographs, motion pictures,
videotapes, and audio recordings but shall be supplementary to any
other statutes and lawful methods existing in this state.